Dryopithecus is a genus mainly defined by isolated dental remains.  All 4 species (D. brancoi, D. crusafonte, D. fontani, D. laietanus) display the following traits: robust incisors, compressed canines, elongated premolars and molars that were thinly enameled and robust jaws in males.  The zygomatic bone of Dryopithecus displays characters (overall robusticity and 3 zygomaxillary foramina found on the frontal process that are functionally related to the presence of cheek pads (Moya – Sola and Kohler).

Dryopithecus fontani

Dryopithecus fontani
• Lartet, 1856
• MNHN-AC 36, Fragmented subadult mandible containing canine through M2 on both left and right sides and fragment of symphysis
• 12 – 11 MYA
• 2 localities in France and 1 in Austria
D. fontani is identified through fragmentary male and female mandibles, isolated teeth, and a humeral shaft. According to Hartwig, “The canines of D. fontani and the male mandibular remains are among the largest of the genus. The female mandibles are gracile when compared to the males and are among the smallest of the genus, suggesting extreme sexual dimorphism. The humerus is long and straight with a possible medial twist of the head as in African apes and humans.”

Dryopithecus laietanus

Dryopithecus laietanus
• Villalta and Crusafont, 1944
• IPS 2, Associated set of mandibular teeth with P3 – M3
•10-9.5 MYA
• Northeast Spain
Post cranial remains indicate that D. laietanus was the smallest of the genus. According to Moya – Sola and Kohler, “The clavicle is long and vertically angled. The highly curved radius and ulna give the long arms a great insertion area for the massive brachialis. Phalanges are curved and the hands are large. The legs are short with a long femoral head with short neck and high angle are common in apes with high range of hip mobility. These characters are shared with both Sivapithecus and Pongo, strengthening the hypothesis that Sivapithecus and Dryopithecus are both ancestral to Pongo.”

Dryopithecus crusafonte

Dryopithecus crusafonte
• Begun, 1992
• IPS 1798/1799, Left maxilla with P3 – M2 and associated left canine fragment
•10.5 MYA
• Spain
As indicated through dental remains, D. crusafonte was probably larger than D. laietanus. According to Hartwig, “The M1 is larger than M2, the maxillary premolars are longer than D. brancoi, and the maxillary molars are broader than D. laietanus. The overall tooth size is more robust than D. fontani.”

Dryopithecus brancoi

Dryopithecus brancoi
• Schlosser, 1901
• Left M3
• 10 MYA
• Germany and Hungary
D. brancoi is similar in dental size to chimpanzees and is well known through cranial remains. As seen in D. fontani, female mandibles are gracile when compared to the males. The maxilla contains large alveolar processes and sinuses. The nasal aperture is broad as is the interorbital space and orbits. According to Hartwig, “The frontal bone is relatively horizontal with thick temporal ridges and faint supraorbital ridges. Postorbital constriction is moderate, as seen in Pan.”